Library Technology Guides

Company Directory

ProQuest

This dashboard brings together data, trends, news, and other resources from Library Technology Guides describing the organization, its executive leadership, personnel employed, business history, as well as related features and news articles.

Connect to the ProQuest website

789 E. Eisenhower Box 1346
Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106-1346
United States
Phone: 734-761-4700
Web site: http://www.proquest.com/
Email: info@proquest.com

Resource Management Products (ILS or LSP)

Executive Leadership

photo of Andrew M. Snyder
Andrew M. Snyder
Chairman, Proquest; Chief Executive Officer, Cambridge Information Group
photo of Matti Shem Tov
Matti Shem Tov
President and Chief Executive Officer
photo of Yair Amsterdam
Yair Amsterdam
Chief Operating Officer
photo of Robert VanHees
Robert VanHees
President and Chief Financial Officer
photo of Roger Valade
Roger Valade
Chief Technology Officer
photo of Kevin A. Norris
Kevin A. Norris
General Counsel
photo of Oren Beit-Arie
Oren Beit-Arie
Chief Strategy Officer
photo of Julie Carroll-Davis
Julie Carroll-Davis
Senior Vice President, Global Content Alliances
photo of Marian Roberge
Marian Roberge
Senior Vice President, Global Human Resources
photo of Rafael Sidi
Rafael Sidi
Senior Vice President and General Manager, ProQuest Information Solutions
photo of James Holmes
James Holmes
Senior Vice President, Global Sales and Marketing

Company Ownership

Part of Cambridge Information Group. Cambridge Information Group is owned by the family of Robert N. Snyder. ProQuest is majority owned by Cambridge Information Group with minority investment by Atairos.

Mergers and Acquisitions

Mergers and Acquisitions for ProQuest

Personnel employed

[Data source: statistics supplied for the annual Library Systems Report or from public information]

CompanyYearDevelopmentSupportSalesAdminOtherTotal
ProQuest 20201461

Documents or articles featuring ProQuest

Breeding, Marshall. ProQuest Acquisition of Innovative Proceeds. December 2020. Smart Libraries Newsletter. ProQuest announced that it has received notification from the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) that the review of its acquisition of Innovative Interfaces has been completed. According to ProQuest Chief Executive Officer Matti Shem Tov, the acquisition of Innovative was accepted in its entirety and without further stipulations. ProQuest announced in December 2019 that it had acquired Innovative Interfaces from its previous owners, investment firms HGGC (formerly Huntsman Gay Global Capital) and JMI Equity in a transaction that closed on January 16, 2020. The FTC review commenced in February 2020, with ProQuest making a public statement acknowledging it on March 13, 2020. No specific information is available on what triggered this acquisition for review by the FTC, nor why it took place after the transaction had closed.

Breeding, Marshall. FTC Reviews ProQuest Acquisition of Innovative Interfaces. May 2020. Smart Libraries Newsletter. The acquisition of Innovative Interfaces by ProQuest, announced in December 2019, is one of the major events in the history of the library technology industry. The deal in which ProQuest purchased Innovative from its previous investors, HCCG and JMI Equity, closed on January 16, 2020. Innovative has become a wholly owned subsidiary of ProQuest, with Yariv Kursh in place as general manager. This transaction has attracted the attention of the Federal Trade Commission, which has initiated a review of the impact of the acquisition on the competitive environment. No specific timeframe has been given on the review, nor can any outcomes be predicted until it is concluded.

Breeding, Marshall. Update on the Acquisition of Innovative by ProQuest. March 2020. Smart Libraries Newsletter. The acquisition of Innovative Interfaces by ProQuest featured in the last issue of Smart Libraries Newsletter closed on January 15, 2020 and is now finalized. Closing the acquisition begins the business and product integration process, which will play out over the next couple of years. Innovative ultimately will be incorporated into the Ex Libris subsidiary of ProQuest.

Breeding, Marshall. ProQuest to Acquire Innovative Interfaces. January 2020. Smart Libraries Newsletter. In a move that further consolidates the library technology industry, Ex Libris has entered into a definitive agreement to acquire Innovative Interfaces, Inc. from its private equity investors. Since December 2015, Ex Libris has been owned by ProQuest. In addition to its role as a major content provider to libraries, ProQuest is now responsible for a growing portfolio of library technology products, including major systems for resource management, content discovery, materials acquisition, reading list integration, and research services. While ProQuest faces major competition for each of its product categories, this move substantially strengthens its position in the sector and broadens its scope to include public libraries.

Breeding, Marshall. New Leadership for ProQuest and Ex Libris. July 2017. Smart Libraries Newsletter. The board of directors of ProQuest has announced that Matti Shem Tov, President of Ex Libris, will assume leadership of the entire ProQuest organization, succeeding current CEO Kurt Sanford. This change comes a year and 4 months after the acquisition of Ex Libris, a move that significantly expanded the position of ProQuest as a content, services, and technology company for libraries. This move represents an interesting change in ProQuest where the top leadership comes from the technology sphere rather than the publishing industry.

Breeding, Marshall. ProQuest to Acquire Ex Libris. November 2015. Smart Libraries Newsletter. In a move that alters the business dynamics of the library technology sector, ProQuest has announced that it will acquire Ex Libris in a deal expected to close later in 2015. Ex Libris, under the ownership of Golden Gate Capital since November 2012, will become a wholly owned business of ProQuest. This merger significantly extends ProQuest's offerings of technology-based workflow and resource management tools and places a broader portfolio of products under the responsibility of Ex Libris. While this merger represents a major step in the evolution of the industry, it is not anticipated to compromise the availability of current product offerings. Longer-term product strategies will be developed over time in collaboration with the company's customer base.

Breeding, Marshall. ProQuest Launches the Intota Foundation Release. August 2014. Smart Libraries Newsletter. ProQuest has released the initial version of Intota, its library services platform that has been under development since 2011. Fully integrated with the Summon discovery service, this version of Intota builds on Intota Assessment, released in November 2013. It adds to the package management tools for electronic resources; the new ProQuest global knowledgebase of metadata describing the holdings of electronic, digital, and print resources; and specialized functionality to support new models of resource procurement, such as demand driven acquisition of library materials. ProQuest designates the current package as the “foundation” release of Intota, upon which will be layered additional modules and functionality

Breeding, Marshall. ProQuest Unifies its Business, Drops Serials Solutions Brand. March 2014. Smart Libraries Newsletter. In a move that reflects a strategy of a more unified corporation structure with more cooperation among its products and services, ProQuest has officially discontinued the Serials Solutions brand and made other organizational changes in recent months.

Breeding, Marshall. Flow: Proquest’s new Platform for Citation Management and Research Collaboration. February 2014. Smart Libraries Newsletter. Building on the longstanding success of RefWorks, ProQuest launched Flow in April 2013 as its new generation platform for citation management and facilitating collaboration among researchers with analytics on the use patterns of resources. As a tool that sits between content and the researcher, Flow can be seen as a critical product for libraries and for ProQuest in its role as a content provider. Through RefWorks, ProQuest and its parent company CIG have been involved in citation management for more than a decade. Flow is positioned to move beyond basic citation management, providing an environment to foster engagement among researchers and a new layer of end-user interactions across its product lines. ProQuest announced in January 2014 that it is offering of a free version of Flow to qualified researchers.

Breeding, Marshall. Serials Solutions to Launch Summon 2.0. May 2013. Smart Libraries Newsletter. Serials Solutions will launch Summon 2.0, a major update of its Web-scale discovery service, expected to be available in June 2013. Summon 2.0 brings in a number of new major features, as well as optimizing some recently added capabilities. As part of the transition to Summon 2.0, Serials Solutions will make improvements to its underlying technical platform. Serials Solutions launched the genre of Web-scale, index-based search, announced in January 2009, with its first live implementation in July 2009 at Grand Valley State University.

Breeding, Marshall. Serials Solutions Announces Intota Assessment. March 2013. Smart Libraries Newsletter. Serials Solutions announced that it plans to provide Intota Assessment for use in 2013, prior to the entirety of the product. This strategy reinforces one of the key principles underlying the data-oriented design of Intota. To support more informed decision- making in areas such as collection development, Intota Assessment will use operational data and metrics from all aspects of the library's systems in addition to data drawn from the company's knowledgebases and bibliographic products.

Breeding, Marshall. Serials Solutions launches Summon Suggestions for enhanced research assistance. December 2012. Smart Libraries Newsletter. Serials Solutions has added a new cluster of features to its Summon discovery service, announced in November 2012, designed to provide additional research assistance to library patrons beyond the presentation of search results. These features, based on the context provided by the user's search query, provide automated tools that can be customized by the library as well as real-time assistance capabilities.

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News Announcements

June 2, 2021. Medical research from Karolinska Institutet now available in ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global Collection. The Karolinska Institutet in Sweden has joined the ProQuest Dissertations and Theses publishing program and will now contribute its PhD theses to ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global, the leading global source of emerging research from universities around the world.


May 17, 2021. Clarivate to acquire ProQuest, creating a leading global provider of mission critical information and data-Driven Solutions for Science and Research. Clarivate, a global leader in providing trusted information and insights to accelerate the pace of innovation, announced a definitive agreement to acquire ProQuest, a leading global software, data and analytics provider to academic, research and national institutions, from Cambridge Information Group, a family-owned investment firm, and other partners including Atairos, for $5.3 billion, including refinancing of ProQuest debt. The consideration for the acquisition is approximately $4.0 billion in cash and $1.3 billion of equity. The transaction, which is subject to customary closing conditions, including regulatory approvals, is expected to close during the third quarter of 2021.


May 12, 2021. New Diversity, Equity and Inclusion (DEI) Ebook subscription highlights underrepresented voices. A new Diversity, Equity and Inclusion (DEI) Ebook Subscription from EdTech leader ProQuest is designed to help libraries address the challenge of building collections across topics of gender, race, sexual orientation, physical ability, age, and political and religious beliefs.


May 11, 2021. ProQuest gains CODiE recognition for dissertations products and COVID-19 response. Two products from EdTech leader ProQuest are finalists in the 2021 SIIA CODiE Awards – an annual program that showcases the best products, technologies and services in software, information and business technology.


April 21, 2021. Syndetics Unbound Content Now Included in Patron Point Recommends. ProQuest has reached an agreement with Patron Point to include Syndetics Unbound elements in their newsletter service. Recommends, is a reading recommendation service that helps libraries market content to their patrons and increase engagement and usage of their collection.


April 7, 2021. JSTOR Ebooks now available in the Rialto and OASIS Marketplaces. Librarians can now acquire titles from JSTOR's collection of more than 100,000 ebooks from more than 275 academic publishers through the Rialto and OASIS marketplaces. JSTOR's unlimited, digital rights management (DRM)-free access model and integration with journals and primary sources creates an easy and familiar user experience for researchers around the world.


April 5, 2021. ProQuest, NYU Pilot Program offers students and faculty instant access to 150,000 Ebooks via app. New York University (NYU) Libraries and EdTech leader ProQuest have launched a pilot project that will make over 150,000 scholarly titles available to students and faculty via their mobile devices. NYU users can access coursebooks, ebooks, and reference works from major publishers through an e-reader app called SimplyE.


March 29, 2021. Maynooth University, one of Ireland’s fastest-growing institutions, Joins ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Collection. Maynooth University, also known as The National University of Ireland Maynooth, is one of the first Irish institutions to include its graduate research in the ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global database, the largest curated collection of theses and dissertations in the world. The ProQuest database will include more than 1,200 full-text PhD and Master's theses and dissertations from Maynooth University, as well as future graduate research submitted at Maynooth on an ongoing basis. These works will be accessible by PQDT users globally and will be broadly discoverable via citations in major subject indexes and Google Scholar, giving Maynooth's authors greater visibility and recognition for their research outputs.


March 10, 2021. Lancaster University Research joins the ProQuest Dissertations & Theses collection. Graduate research from Lancaster University, named International University of the Year for 2020 by The Times, will now be included in the ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global database – the largest curated database of dissertations and theses in the world.


January 27, 2021. Research from Turkey’s Marmara University joins the ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Collection. Marmara University is the first institution in Turkey to showcase its graduate works in the ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global database, the leading source of emerging research from universities around the world. Located in Istanbul, MU is renowned for its research in medicine, law and fine arts.


View All ProQuest News Announcements

Corporate Chronology

May 16, 2021 Clarivate to acquire ProQuest
Clarivate announced a definitive agreement to acquire ProQuest, a leading global software, data and analytics provider to academic, research and national institutions, from Cambridge Information Group, a family-owned investment firm, and other partners including Atairos, for $5.3 billion, including refinancing of ProQuest debt. The consideration for the acquisition is approximately $4.0 billion in cash and $1.3 billion of equity. The transaction, which is subject to customary closing conditions, including regulatory approvals, is expected to close during the third quarter of 2021.

Dec 04, 2019 ProQuest Acquires Innovative Interfaces
In a move that further consolidates the library technology industry, Ex Libris has entered into a definitive agreement to acquire Innovative Interfaces, Inc. from its private equity investors. Since December 2015, Ex Libris has been owned by ProQuest. In addition to its role as a major content provider to libraries, ProQuest is now responsible for a growing portfolio of library technology products, including major systems for resource management, content discovery, materials acquisition, reading list integration, and research services. While ProQuest faces major competition for each of its product categories, this move substantially strengthens its position in the sector and broadens its scope to include public libraries.

May 17, 2019 Atairos makes investment in ProQuest
ProQuest and Atairos, an independent private company focused on supporting growth-oriented businesses, announced that Atairos will acquire an ownership position in ProQuest. ProQuest will use the proceeds from the transaction to repurchase most of the shares owned by entities affiliated with the Merchant Banking Division of Goldman Sachs, which will retain a minority interest in the Company. Cambridge Information Group will maintain its majority ownership of ProQuest. CIG has been the majority owner of ProQuest since 2007, overseeing a period of growth through new product innovation and strategic acquisitions that have helped ProQuest customers respond to changing environments.

Dec 15, 2015 Ex Libris acquired by ProQuest
ProQuest, an information solutions provider central to global research, has completed its acquisition of Ex Libris Group, a leading global provider of cloud‑based solutions for higher education.

Apr 30, 2015 Ex Libris acquires oMbiel, a leading provider of mobile campus solutions
Ex Libris has expanded its product portfolio by acquiring oMbiel, a leading UK-based SaaS platform provider of mobile and portal solutions for higher education. campusM, oMbiel’s flagship product, enables educational institutions to deliver services and information to prospective, enrolled, and graduating students, as well as other campus audiences, through a high-quality user experience. Mobile access to information and services as provided by campusM is now a basic expectation of users, particularly the new generation of mobile-first students.

Oct 16, 2012 Golden Gate Capital acquires Ex Libris from Leeds Equity Partners for $300 million
Golden Gate Capital, a prominent San Francisco-based private equity firm with $12 billion in capital under management, has entered into an agreement to acquire Ex Libris from its current owner, Leeds Equity Partners.

Jul 13, 2011 Kurt Sanford named Chief Executive Officer of ProQuest
Sanford will join the ProQuest as Chief Executive Officer and as a member of its Board of Directors on July 13, 2011. Mr. Sanford, a highly experienced information services executive, previously spent the past 14 years at LexisNexis, serving most recently as President, Global Operations for its global legal business. Mr. Sanford will succeed Marty Kahn, who has led ProQuest since it was acquired by Cambridge Information Group (CIG) in 2007. Mr Kahn will become Vice Chairman of ProQuest’s Board of Directors, and also consult with ProQuest and its parent company CIG. He will be based in CIG’s New York office.

Aug 05, 2008 Leeds Equity Partners acquires Ex Libris Group
Ex Libris Group announced that Leeds Equity Partners, the largest fund focused exclusively on investing in knowledge industry companies, has completed the acquisition of the Ex Libris Group. Silver Point Capital L.P. provided acquisition financing for Ex Libris. Value of transaction estimated at $170 million.

Jul 01, 2008 ProQuest acquires Dialog from Thomson Reuters
ProQuest acquired Dialog from ThomsonReuters and named industry veteran Suzanne BeDell as Dialog General Manager. Ms. BeDell will report to ProQuest CEO Marty Kahn.

Feb 14, 2008 WebFeat acquired by ProQuest and merged into Serials Solutions
In a move that consolidates the federated search sector of the library automationmarket, WebFeat has been acquired by ProQuest and will be merged into its Serials Solutions subsidiary. ProQuest is part of Cambridge Information Group, which also owns R.R. Bowker. Although Cambridge Information Group’s strategic focus has been on publishing and electronic content, the company has increasingly become involved in technology.

Jan 18, 2008 ProQuest acquires RefWorks
ProQuest, a Cambridge Information Group company, has acquired RefWorks LLC, a leading provider of web-based research management, writing and collaboration services for the academic and research communities. Cambridge Information Group has had an ownership position in RefWorks since May 2001. Complete ownership will enable ProQuest to integrate RefWorks into its COS business -- which serves the same market -- creating powerful, single-source networking and management tools for scholars around the world.

Jun 30, 2007 Remnant of ProQuest Company changes name to VoyagerLearning following sale of ProQuest Information and Learning to Cambridge Information Group
ProQuest Company will change its name to VoyagerLearning Company effective Saturday, June 30, 2007. The name change is being made pursuant to the terms of the sale of ProQuest Information and Learning to Cambridge Information Group in February 2007 under which CIG acquired the rights to the ProQuest name.

Jun 21, 2007 R.R. Bowker acquires Medialab Solutions, developer of AquaBrowser Library
R.R. Bowker, the global leader in bibliographic information management, announced that it has acquired Medialab Solutions by Amsterdam, creators of the highly regarded AquaBrowser Library search and discovery platform that is used by more than 60 million patrons in public libraries throughout the U.S. and Europe.

Feb 09, 2007 Cambridge Information Group acquires ProQuest Information and Learning for $220 million
Cambridge Information Group closed its previously announced transaction with ProQuest Company and acquired ProQuest Information and Learning. CIG will combine its Bethesda, Maryland-based CSA subsidiary with Ann Arbor, Michigan-based ProQuest Information and Learning to create a new, privately held independent company, ProQuest-CSA.

Dec 15, 2006 Cambridge Information Group announces intent to acquire Proquest Information and Learning with ABRY Partners, LLC as minority investor
ProQuest Company and its subsidiary, ProQuest Information and Learning Company sign a definitive agreement with Cambridge Information Group (CIG) providing for the acquisition of the ProQuest Information and Learning segment for approximately $222 million. ABRY Partners, LLC. contributed 20 percent minority equity investment of $63 million.

Jun 26, 2006 Francisco Partners acquires Ex Libris for $62 million
Francisco Partners, a private equity firm based in Menlo Park, CA with about $5 billion under management, purchased 100% of Ex Libris Group. Previous owners included venture capital firms Walden Israel and Tamar Technologies; the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and current and former company executives.

Dec 12, 2005 CSA acquires Community of Science
CSA acquired Community of Science (COS)a leading Internet site for the global research an d development community. Over the last 15 years, COS has established itself as the leader in grant funding opportunities and researcher expertise information. Community of Science, originally a spin-off of The Johns Hopkins University, facilitates the business of worldwide R&D. It represents more than 1,300 universities, associations, and other research institutions comprising more than 480,000 scholars and researchers. CSA is a division of Cambridge Information Group.

Jan 01, 2005 ProQuest acquires Voyager Expanded Learning
ProQuest Information and Learning has completed the acquisition of privately held Voyager Expanded Learning, a leading provider of in-school core reading programs, reading intervention programs, and professional development programs for school districts throughout the United States.

Sep 27, 2004 R.R. Bowker acquires Syndetic Solutions
R.R. Bowker, the leading provider of bibliographic information in North America, today announced the acquisition of Syndetic Solutions, a premier provider of enriched content for a library's online catalog.

Jul 23, 2003 ProQuest acquires SIRS Publishing from EGEG Holdings Corp.
ProQuest Information and Learning has acquired SIRS Publishing, Inc, the publisher of SIRS Researcher, SIRS Discoverer, SIRS Enduring Issues and other databases. Mandarin Library Automation remains under the ownership of EGEG Holdings Corp., directed by Elliot Goldstein and Eleanor Goldstein.

May 11, 2003 Matti Shem Tov appointed President and Chief Executive Officer of Ex Libris
Ex Libris Ltd. announced that Matti Shem Tov will be heading the expanding global operations of the company as its new president and CEO, effective immediately.

Jan 31, 2002 ProQuest acquires Micromedia
ProQuest Information and Learning announced that it has acquired Micromedia Limited, Canada's largest developer, publisher, and distributor of value-added reference information for academic, government, and corporate markets. Founded in 1972 and headquartered in Toronto, Micromedia licenses information from media, government, and other sources, creates abstracts, and delivers the information via the Internet, CD-ROM, microform, and print media.

2001 Bell & Howell launches ProQuest Company
ProQuest Company formed through the consolidation of Bell & Howell Information and Learning and Bell & Howell Publishing Services

2001 Cambridge Information Group acquires Bowker
Cambridge Information Group acquired R.R. Bowker, a unit of Cahners Business Information, from Reed Elsevier.

Oct 1999 Bell & Howell acquires Chadwyck-Healey
Bell & Howell acquires Chadwyck-Healey for £30M

Jul 1997 Ex Libris acquires Dabis, a German company offering the BIS library automation system
Ex Libris acquired the German company Dabis, which had a three hundred-library customer base using its BIS system.

1986 Ex Libris, Ltd. founded
Ex Libris, Ltd., was formed in 1986 to market and support the software outside of Israel, allowing Aleph Yissum to focus on the software development and to support its use by Israel-based libraries.

1985 Reed Holdings Inc. acquires University Microfilm International from Xerox

1983 Aleph Yissum founded to commercialize ALEPH
Yissum, the technology transfer department of Hebrew University of Jerusalem, hires Azriel Morag to commercialize the ALEPH software, launching a new company called Aleph Yissum.

1980 ALEPH software created at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Ex Libris began in 1980 as an effort to create software to automate the libraries of HUJ. Its software, Automated Library Expandable Program or ALEPH-100

1955 Cambridge Scientific Abstracts founded
Data approximate.

1938 Eugene B. Power founds University Microfilm International
ProQuest LLC began as University Microfilm International (UMI), founded by Eugene B. Power in 1938 in Ann Arbor Michigan. Power began the business with the idea of using microform technology to serve the low-demand publishing requirements of the scholarly community. One of UMI’s first areas for content acquisition was doctoral dissertations, which it began microfilming in 1939, publishing the abstracts in Microfilm Abstracts, an annual catalog of the dissertations available for sale from UMI. (Source: CRL Profile of ProQuest LLC: http://www.crl.edu/sites/default/files/attachments/pages/ProQuest%20profile%20082010.pdf )

Annual Accomplishments Statements

[Data source: text supplied for the annual Library Systems Report]

2015 ProQuest Accomplishments Narrative

The major change for ProQuest Workflow Solutions is, of course, the merger with Ex Libris. In December, 2015, Ex Libris was acquired by ProQuest, and ProQuest Workflow Solutions, a business unit of ProQuest, was merged with Ex Libris to create Ex Libris, a ProQuest company.

This merger meant that the products reported for this survey are now being developed, maintained and offered by Ex Libris, a ProQuest company. All products that have been released into production will continue to be supported. The new company is committed to maintaining and supporting all ProQuest and Ex Libris products. It is not the intention of the new company to reduce choice in the market.

This is particularly notable for the two discovery solutions, Primo and Summon. Both will continue as flagship products, with active development roadmaps. Data from the Summon index will be used to enrich the Primo index, both in coverage and in metadata content.

With the merger, development of unified collection management capabilities will center around the Alma platform. Elements of the Intota vision will be added to Alma in a collaborative program with the original Intota development partners. Intota version 1, the unified e-resource management, assessment and discovery solution now installed at more than 100 libraries worldwide will continue to be supported.

Prior to the merger, ProQuest Workflow Solutions improved capabilities across its product line. There are multiple releases of every production solution. Most significant are:

  • Extensive development on 360 Link, the SaaS link resolver, including new sidebar user interface options and the inclusion of Ulrich’s data and Altmetrics data within the interface
  • Several releases of Summon that improved relevancy ranking and known item searching. The migration of Summon to Amazon Web Services significantly improved uptime, stability and performance.
  • The introduction of new platform for Project COUNTER reports in 360 Counter.
  • Enhancements to Intota Assessment based on customer feedback, including the addition of local call numbers and options for title comparison.
  • The adoption by a growing number of libraries of the fully automated DDA workflow offered in Intota version 1.

Please note that the employee count given is for ProQuest Workflow Solutions related only to the product lines reported. This is a variation from last year when all employees, including those working on other product lines, such as Books in Print, were reported.

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