1. SEARCHING THE DATABASE
The following search keys may be used to identify bibliographic records from any function in the Bibliographic or Circulation Subsystems:
- barcode or other machine-readable label
- author (including added entries)
- keyword in title
- corporate name
- conference name
- title key (3,2,2,1 title key)
- author/title key (4,4 author/title key)
- series title
- call number
- LC card number
- OCLC number
All of these search keys permit right truncation.
Any additional user-defined search keys may be established during system profiling.
1.1. BIBLIOGRAPHIC CONTROL1.1.1 Creation and Maintenance of Bibliographic Records
Three methods are available for entering bibliographic records into the system:
- OCLC or other MARC-format tapes;
- Direct OCLC interface, and
- Online input through a CRT terminal.
126.96.36.199 Loading Records from Tape
MARC-format bibliographic records from any existing archival tapes of the library's holdings (such as from OCLC) may be loaded directly into the system using the Process OCLC tape (P0) command. These records are added directly to the Master Bibliographic File, fully indexed for searching.
As an option, the library may choose to have OCLC process the archive tapes against the current version of the name-authority records. In this preprocessing option, the heading in the bibliographic record is matched against the authority heading, confirmed, and a cross-reference created.
As the archival records are loaded, the library may choose to have LS/2000 automatically convert pre-AACR2 headings to the correct authority heading form. In this processing option, LS/2000 checks for an 87x field, and if one is found, creates a cross-reference. If 1xx or 7xx fields in subsequent records match this cross-reference, LS/2000 replaces the lxx field with the appropriate heading form referred to by the 1xx or 7xx field.
The system will also create individual copy records automatically as the tape is loaded, and will assign the items to the correct library collection, using holdings symbols, call numbers, or other information contained in the biblio-graphic record. OCLC will provide customized programs to derive these library-specific collections.
Records input from tape which duplicate records already in the database will replace the original record; however, the original is retained and may be restored via the Review Bib Record (RB) function. Records are considered duplicates if they have the same OCLC control number, or the same title key/call number combination. Users entering records from a terminal search the database prior to inputting the record. LSI2000 then displays a message if a matching record (potential duplicate) is found.
188.8.131.52 Direct OCLC Interface
A direct interface between LS/2000 and OCLC terminals has been developed which allows an OCLC user to route a selected OCLC record for input to LS/2000 through the OCLC terminal printer port. Copies may be automatically created as described previously.
184.108.40.206 Online Input of Bibliographic Records
For online input, LS/2000's Add/Edit Bibliographic Record (AB) function prompts the user to enter the "core" bibliographic data required for that particular record type. Core data are usually those fields displayed in the full format in the Online Catalog, such as call number, author, title, edition, subject headings, and collation. Additional or different fields relevant to each media type may be defined as core data at installation.
Prompt sequences for core data contain the field name (i.e., TITLE) and the MARC tag/subfield (245 a). The user may enter additional fields beyond the core fields by identifying a valid tag to be input, and supplying the data describing that title.
The library may define new record types and core data to input special collections or materials.
Bibliographic data may also be entered "on the fly" during Check Out. If the user attempts to check out an item which is not registered in the system, a message is displayed along with an audible "beep". The user may then input a very brief description of the item (i.e., call number, perhaps author and title). The system automatically completes the check out transaction without requiring reidentification of the item.
220.127.116.11 Editing Records and Copies
Bibliographic records may be edited by either of two functions in the Biblio-graphic Control subsystem: Add/Edit Bibliographic Record (AB) or Review Bibliographic Data (RB). The RB function allows the user to scan (in call number sequence) all records newly added from tape or through online input, while the AB function requires that the user identify a specific known item.
In both cases, the record is displayed in a MARC format and the user may edit any tag by identifying the tag and subfield. The user then indicates what group of characters is to be replaced and enters the correct data. It is not necessary to reenter the entire tag/subfield. The user may also enter additional tags, including repeats of repeating tags.
The Add/Edit Item (Al) function allows the user to edit an item's location, loan period type, call number (spine label), or ID label (barcode or OCR).
18.104.22.168 Deleting Items
The Item Delete function allows the user to delete copies and bibliographic records. Copies may only be deleted if their circulation status is "available" (i.e., not checked Out). When the last copy of a title is deleted, the user may delete the entire bibliographic record if desired.
1.1.2 Authority Files
The system uses a MARC-based authority file containing headings for any authority-controlled field: personal name, corporate name, conference name, subject heading, series title, and any others desired by the library. Cross- references and notes as defined in the MARC authority record may be stored in the authority file.
22.214.171.124 Authority File Creation
The authority file is created automatically from authority-controlled biblio-graphic tags (i.g., author) when records are added or updated. Bibliographic records input from any source are checked against the existing authority file, and, if the entry is not found, a new heading is added automatically (flagged for later review as described in the preceding section 126.96.36.199.).
188.8.131.52 AACR2 Conversion
When bibliographic records containing OCLC-converted headings are loaded from tape, the conversion code is included in the resulting authority record, and the associated cross-references are made. If earlier records containing the invalid heading are loaded subsequently, the system automatically looks up the cross- reference and updates the bibliographic record with the AACR2 form.
184.108.40.206 Authority Maintenance
The Authority Maintenance (AM) function allows authorized users to 1) edit the text of an authority record and add notes or other data; 2) merge an invalid heading into a valid one to resolve conflicts; and 3) add/delete cross- references. Changes to an authority heading cause an automatic global change to all the associated bibliographic records.
LS/2000's Add/Edit Bibliographic Record function will allow the user to search the authority file when entering authority-controlled bibliographic tags. If the appropriate heading is not found, the user enters it as given. The authority file will be updated and the new authority record flagged for review through the Review Authority function.
Up-to-date circulation records for items and patrons are maintained automatically by the Circulation subsystem functions. Items are checked out to patrons via the Check Out function. The patron record is automatically updated and may be viewed through the Patron Status function; the item record is also updated automatically and may be viewed through the Item Status function. When the item is checked in via the Check In function, the system automatically changes the item status to "available", increments the check Out statistics, and removes the item from the patron's record.
1.2.2 Creation and Maintenance of Patron File
Patrons may be added to the system individually via the Patron Registration function, or custom software may be provided to load an existing machine- readable patron file.
220.127.116.11 Defining the Patron File
Patron categories are defined by the library during profiling (e.g., student, staff, county resident, ILL institution). The library also defines the data required for each patron category (e.g., name, address, department).
18.104.22.168 Entering Individual Patrons
During Patron Registration, the system prompts the user for the predefined set of data required for the particular patron category. If the library uses machine- readable labels to identify patrons, this ID label can be used or recorded during registration. Once the required data has been entered, the patron record Is immediately filed and the patron may check out materials.
Patrons may either be registered as part of the Check Out process or via the specific Patron Registration function.
22.214.171.124 Patron Exceptions
LS/2000 alerts the user via an audible and visual alert to any exceptional conditions attached to the patron's record, including:
- delinquent (patron has overdue items)
- exceeding the maximum number of Items checked out at one time
- card was reported lost/stolen
- message exists for this patron (staff-set block)
A default loan period for each patron category is established during profiling via the Circulation Parameters function. Borrowing privileges (default loan period) can be modified for Individual patrons.
Using LS/2000's multi-site/collection enhancements, patrons' privileges may be restricted to certain branches or collections. If an unauthorized patron attempts to check out material, the system displays a message which an authorized user may override if necessary.
126.96.36.199 Accessing Patron Records
Patrons may be identified to the system by wanding the ID label, by entering the patron ID, or by entering the patron name either in full or truncated. An existing patron number (such as student or employee ID) may be used as the patron ID in place of the barcode ID number.
1.2.3 Check Out
To perform a check out, an authorized user identifies the patron (by wanding the ID card or searching by patron ID or name), then identifies all the items to be checked out (by wanding the label or searching by any of the search keys de-scribed earlier), without having to reidentify the patron for each item checked out. If the library chooses, patrons may be authorized to perform self check outs.
A date due slip for each item can be printed via a screen printer attached to the terminal.
LS/2000 displays a message if the patron or item record is not found. Patron data may then be identified with a temporary label or a brief record may be entered.
188.8.131.52 Loan Periods
LS/2000's multi-site capability computes item loan periods (and other circula-tion parameters such as renewal period) based on item location (branch or collection), item type, and patron category.
The library may specify as many different loan periods as needed to accommodate the various collections and patron types. Loan periods may be expressed in days or hours (a Reserve Room function as used in an academic setting Is planned for Release C). At check out, LS/2000 assigns and displays a due date based on the loan period matrix established; an authorized user may override the assigned due date.
184.108.40.206 Item Exceptions
An item will be blocked at Check Out if:
- it is on hold for someone else (patron is not first in hold queue)
- a message exists about this item
If an item being checked out is found to be checked out already, the system automatically processes an intermediate check in from the original patron, then continues with the current check out. The assumption is that the item is physically in hand, indicating that it was brought back to the library at some point, and the current patron should be allowed to check out the item. If the item was reported "lost" or "patron claimed return", a message is displayed and the item's status Is changed to found.
220.127.116.11 Staff-set Blocks or Messages
An authorized user can input via the message function a free-text message for any patron or item. The message then displays the next time the item or patron identification is accessed, and is also stored in the particular item or patron record.
After a message is displayed, the operator may delete the message by identifying its number, or may leave the message attached to the record by simply pressing the carriage return.
18.104.22.168 Check Out Processing
All transactions (including circulation and bibliographic control) are stored In a disk file for processing and backup. Circulation transactions are processed at the highest priority, and are completed almost instantly. Immediately after checking out an item, an authorized user can access the item status record and view both the item due date and the name of the patron to whom the item was checked out. The new circulation status also immediately displays when the item is accessed in the Online Catalog.
1.2.4 Circulation Status
An authorized user may access circulation status information for any item or may access circulation statistics relating to any patron via the appropriate item or patron status record.
22.214.171.124 Item Circulation Status
A number of Circulation Subsystem and Online Catalog functions display circulation status or availability information.
126.96.36.199.1 Item Status Display
The Item Status record displays a summary of all copies associated with a title, including the copy number, location, and current circulation status of each.
LS/2000 displays the full item status record for a specific copy and includes descriptive information about the item, such as author and title, current location, ID number, and spine label (copy call number). Its current status is shown as 1) checked out to (patron name), with due date, 2) available (assumed to be in its usual shelf location), 3) available on a cart, or 4) lost or patron claimed return. Circulation statistics for this particular copy are displayed, including number of circulations, renewals, and internal use during the current reporting period. The authorized user also has the option of viewing the hold queue (waiting list) or messages associated with the item via the item status record.
188.8.131.52.2 Online Catalog Display
The full title display in the Online Catalog lists (in order by location) all copies and their current location/collection, and their availability status. If the library owns several copies of the same title in different branches or collections, the copies will be grouped by branch in the Online Catalog display.
184.108.40.206 Patron Status
The Patron Status function shows the patron's registration data (defined by the library), current circulation status, and circulation history (statistics). If the patron currently has items checked out, on hold, or if there are messages, these may be displayed as requested. The list of items presently checked out includes the title, author, copy number, date due, and whether renewed. The hold queue displays the title, priority of this patron in the queue, date the hold was placed, date not needed after, date the item became available, and date the hold was filled.
The circulation statistics for the patron include: total number of items currently checked Out, total number of items checked Out this reporting period, and total number of renews this reporting period.
1.2.5 Check In
220.127.116.11 Identifying the Item
Items to be checked in may be identified by wanding the label, or by searching for the item record using any of the search keys defined.
18.104.22.168 Returned Items
Since items often are placed on a shelving cart for a period of time before being returned to their shelf location, the system provides the ability to record this interim location via the Cart capability. When an authorized user checks in an item, the system prompts for the identity of the cart being loaded (carts may be Identified by number or by wanding a cart label). All items subsequently checked in are assigned to the cart, and a display of the circulation status indicates that the item is on the specified cart. When all items from the cart have been reshelved, the user clears the entire cart using the Cart function (clear option), which automatically reassigns all of the items to the shelf location and sets their status to "available". This eliminates the need to reprocess each item separately.
If no carts/shelving trucks are being used, the user may bypass this option.
22.214.171.124 Items Returned to Another Branch
LS/2000's multi-site circulation capabilities enable the system to recognize that an item has been checked in at a different branch. The system alerts the user to this condition by displaying a message saying "Return to (location)". The item is then fully checked in, and its status is set to "in-transit". When it is checked in at the owning library, the status is reset to "available".
1.2.6 Tracking Internal Use (SHELF)
In addition to tracking and counting circulation activity, the library may track use of items within the library via the Shelf command. If such items can be determined (i.e., if the library has a no-reshelving policy or provides reference material from a central location), a staff member can retrieve the materials used in-house and wand the labels or search the database for the corresponding item. The Item Status function displays the number of times the item was used internally.
With the Renew function, an authorized user may renew an item whether or not the patron is physically present in the library. The user identifies the patron who is requesting the renewal, then renews a specific item or all items currently checked out to that patron. The system calculates the renewal period based on the same matrix as the original loan period. LS/2000 additionally maintains a count of these renewals and displays them in the Item Status record.
1.2.8 Hold Queue
The Hold Queue function allows authorized staff to add a patron to the hold queue for an item, list the hold queue for an item, list the items a patron has on hold, and change the order of patrons in the hold queue.
126.96.36.199 Title and Edition Holds
Holds may be placed on any copy of a title, or restricted to specific copies. Staff may access the hold queue for any title and its copies. Holds may also be placed on specific editions by selecting that edition's bibliographic record. To place a hold on any edition of a title, the authorized user must add the patron to the hold queue for each title (bibliographic) record.
188.8.131.52 Recalling Items
To recall an item, the staff member identifies the item through the Recall function. Recall notices are produced for all such items, on a schedule determined by the library. When the item is subsequently checked in, a message is displayed ("Item is on recall"), and the staff member can then check the item's hold queue to determine who should be notified.
184.108.40.206 Display of Hold Queue
An authorized user can view the hold queue for an item by accessing the item hold queue via the Hold function. The hold queue is not automatically displayed at Check In.
220.127.116.11 Checking In Items on Hold
If the item being checked in is on hold or being recalled, a message will be displayed advising the terminal, operator to place the item on the hold shelf. The item is NOT automatically checked out to the next patron at this point, nor is the hold queue automatically displayed. When the next patron in the hold queue checks out the item, he is automatically removed from the queue and the other patrons are moved up.
18.104.22.168 Checking Out Items on Hold
Should the library wish to process the hold request as soon as the item is checked in (instead of placing it on a hold shelf), an authorized user can check the item out to the next patron in the queue and produce a mailing label (via the Mail Out function) for mailing the item to the patron.
If a patron not in the hold queue for an item attempts to check the item out, the system displays a warning message that the patron is not in the queue. The user may then abort the transaction or override the block and continue the check out process.
22.214.171.124 Cancellation Date
At the time a hold is placed on an item, the patron indicates a "date not needed after" or cancellation date. If the patron is still in the hold queue after this date has passed, he will be deleted automatically and the remaining patrons moved up in the list.
An authorized user may change the priorities of patrons in the hold queue for an item, or may delete specific patrons from the queue altogether.
126.96.36.199 Deleting Items on Hold
If a title is deleted, the system automatically cancels patrons from the item's hold queue. Notices to patrons are not generated automatically.
Prior to setting the status of an item to "lost", the hold queue must be cleared. The system does not automatically cancel patrons from the hold queue when the status is changed to lost.
1.2.9 Maintaining Collections
188.8.131.52 Location Hierarchy
Staff members may display a list of the locations and collections defined in the system, using the Location Hierarchy function. This feature displays all the location names and abbreviations in an indented list, to show which locations and collections are related.
184.108.40.206 Location Holdings
The Location Holdings function provides a summary of the current holdings of any defined location or collection. The summary displays the total number of titles and items at that location, including any subordinate locations which belong to it. The summary also includes the total items currently checked out from this location, as well as the total items temporarily transferred to and from this collection.
The Location Holdings function additionally allows an authorized user to list or print the holdings of a given location. The list displays the title, publication year, author, and call number for each item, in alphabetical order by title.
220.127.116.11 Transferring Items
Items may be transferred temporarily or permanently from one location or collection to another via the Transfer Item feature. Temporary transfers are useful for setting up temporary collections such as special displays, or for recording items that have been loaned to another branch. A specific or indefinite due date may be associated with a temporary transfer. Permanent transfers can be used to establish a new collection or permanently reassign items.
18.104.22.168 Overdue Notices
Overdue notices are printed for items not returned within a specified time past their due date. The library specifies the interval between successive overdue notices. Overdue notices are printed as mailable notices; the format can be modified to suit the library's requirements under the terms of a proposal.
22.214.171.124 Recall Notices
An authorized user explicitly requests that a recall notice be issued for a desired item via the Recall function. Items placed on hold do not automatically generate a recall notice. The printed recall notices are generated on a schedule determined by the library and are also mailable notices.
The system contains a number of online reports and several printed reports. The reports identified below are currently available or will be provided as indicated.
126.96.36.199 Activity Reports
Currently available circulation reports cover circulation activity for various time periods (daily, weekly, monthly, and yearly). These online reports display statistics on total items checked in and checked out, renewals, holds, and overdue notices sent.
Database activity reports (available for the same time periods) display cumulative statistics for the total number of records and items added, edited, and deleted, and the total number of patrons added and deleted.
188.8.131.52 Lost or Missing Items
Snag reports list items reported as lost or patron claimed return, so that staff may search for the items within the library.
184.108.40.206 Pull Items
Pull slips can be generated for items which are to be pulled from the shelf, e.g., to fulfill a patron or interlibrary loan request. An individual slip is prepared for each item so that they can be divided efficiently among stack searchers.
220.127.116.11 Listings from the Bibliographic and Patron FiThs
A remote printing capability allows staff and/or patrons to selectively print citations lists from the bibliographic database, based on Online Catalog searches.
An authorized user can print via an attached screen printer any circulation data contained in the patron status record.
1.3 Online CatalogThe system contains the most sophisticated and flexible Online Catalog avail-able. This Online Catalog is fully integrated with the Master Bibliographic File and Authority File, so that all circulation activity and record updates are reflected in the Online Catalog immediately.
1.3.1 Indexing Fields and Search Types
The Online Catalog uses search indexes (known as search groups) whose contents are library-definable. The system provides for searching by author (100, 400, and other tags), title, subject heading, keyword, call number, corporate name, conference name, ISBN/ISSN, title key, OCLC number, and LC card number. (Some of these are only available if the library has full MARC records). During profiling, the library can define additional searches, or revise the list of MARC tags to be used in creating the search types indicated.
The keyword search uses keywords from title, subject headings (subfield a), author's last name, corporate names, and conference names. The personal, corporate, and conference names and subject heading keywords are derived from the respective authority records. Additional fields can be used for keywords, if desired.
All online searches allow truncation of search strings, which enable the user to browse the appropriate index of terms. All searches assume truncation - no separate code or command is required.
1.3.2 Searcher Levels
The Online Catalog as described in the preceding section is designed for use by novice users. It is menu-driven and oriented toward index browsing. The more experienced users may bypass the intermediate menus by entering search key commands in response to any prompt. For instance, the first screen prompts the user to identify the desired search type from the menu (author, title, subject other, or enter a keyword). The experienced user may at that point enter "AU=Johnson, Rob" and go directly to a list of authors starting with "Johnson, Rob".
In addition, the specific search types offered through the menu are determined by the library, so that different search types may be offered to different categories of users. For example, a search by technical report number can be defined and made available to any user, while another search by SuDoc number can be limited to authorized staff members only.
1.3.3 Boolean Searching
Boolean searching in LS/2000 takes the form of progressive narrowing of a search set (AND limitation). Users may limit the original search set by using any of the primary search types (i.e., another keyword, or author, subject, etc.), or by using other specific limits such as language or publication year. The library may define additional searches for use in limiting the initial search request.
The limiting feature is used only when the previous search retrieved more than the specified number of postings (initially set at 20, but may be changed). The user is offered the option of viewing the retrieved items, narrowing the search, or starting a new search altogether.
The searches used in the Circulation and Bibliographic Control subsystems allow a more command-like Boolean search (AND only). The system does not presently support an "OR" or "NOT" search capability.
1.3.4 User-cordial Interface
A great deal of effort has gone into making the LS/2000 Online Catalog user-cordial. Screen displays are clear and uncluttered, and the user's input of a search string has been facilitated through use of fill-in-the-blanks wherever possible. In the personal author search, the system prompts with three blanks for last, first, and middle name of the desired author. If the author search includes personal, corporate, and conference names, the system prompts with only one blank in which the user must input the last name (followed by a comma and a space) then the first name of the desired author.
1.3.5 Record Displays
Two types of record displays are available in the Online Catalog, based on the number of postings retrieved. Whenever a search retrieves more than one item, the system presents a brief title display indicating title, author, year of publication, and call number. This display lists the items in order by publication date (most recent first).
A full title display, presented when the user identifies a single title, shows a bibliographic record in a format similar to a catalog card. The current circulation status of all copies is also indicated in the full title display. If more than one branch owns copies, the circulation status displays for all or selected branches, as desired.
Staff members and other knowledgeable users may request the display of the full MARC record as well, which is a hidden option so as not to confuse novice users.
1.3.6 Access to the Authority File in Searching
The system uses a MARC-structured Authority File built automatically from any authority-controlled bibliographic tags identified by the library.
18.104.22.168 Displaying Authority Records
Authority records (in MARC format) are displayed to authorized users via the Authority Maintenance function, and are displayed in a modified format to Online Catalog users via the Master Bibliographic File records.
When searching authority-controlled fields such as author or subject heading in the Online Catalog, the user first browses a search index (built from the authority file). The patron does not access the authority records directly but does receive the benefits from authority control as the system performs searches and uses authority control to retrieve records linked by means of cross-references.
Cross-references are entered online using Authority Maintenance. No blind references are created; that is, to add a SEE ALSO reference, both headings must already exist in the file, and to add a SEE reference the valid heading must already exist in the file. The backward references are made automatically when a cross-reference is entered (i.e. SEE FROM or SEE ALSO FROM).
The cross-references are displayed during searching when the user selects an index entry which is a SEE reference to another term, or when the selected term contains SEE ALSO references to other terms. SEE references in the index show the number of postings associated with the valid heading (if only one); that is, SEE references do not show up with zero postings. If a SEE reference is selected, the valid heading is displayed, from which the user can then choose to display the related titles.
1.3.7 Limiting the Search to a Particular Location/Collection
LS/2000's multi-site design provides the capability to search the full collection or any pre-defined sub-location or collection. When a user first initiates a search in the Online Catalog, the system assumes that the full database or union catalog is to be searched; a specific command (Change Location) must be issued to restrict the search. The search screens always display the name of the location currently being searched (in the upper right corner).
If the user decides to restrict the search to a different location, the system will prompt the user to select a specific location from those available in the list. These "searchable" locations are defined by the library during profiling. After choosing the desired location, the user may optionally display the associated location hierarchy to better understand the relationship among the locations.
After limiting the location, the search menu is again displayed, and all subsequent searches retrieve only items at the specified location. If a given title has several copies but only one is at the specified location, that one copy is the only one displayed in the full record display.
The same set of search types is offered for all locations.
1.4. ADMINISTRATIVE FUNCTIONSA number of general features are grouped together as administrative functions. A few of particular interest are described below.
1.4.1 User Codes and Experience Levels
The system administrator may establish user passwords (via the User Add/Edit command) in order to provide access to the system. Each password specifies a particular set of authorized system commands and may be assigned to individuals or to groups of users sharing common functions.
A password may be deleted (such as when a staff member leaves) via the User Delete function.
1.4.2 Log On Message
The Log On Message feature provides for entering a message to be broadcast to all users as they sign on to the system, The message displays each time a user logs on ~rnti1 the message is specifically deleted.