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Follett Corporation History: the evolution and devolution of a family business

Library Technology Newsletter [January 2023]

by

Table of Contents

Follett Corporation was a multi-generational family owned and managed business begun in the early 1900s that grew from an office buying and selling used books into a major corporation with over $3.5 billion in annual revenue. The business eventually expanded to include multiple subsidiaries, spanning activities such as the management of physical and online college bookstores, wholesale distribution of educational resources, and technologies and content for K-12 school and public libraries. Five generations of the descendants of founder Charles W. Follett were involved in its management and operation.

From its inception, the focus of the company has been on books and education, building on the principles established as Charles W. Follett learned the bookselling business from Charles and William Barnes. The subsequent businesses within the Follett enterprise demonstrated a pattern of integrating retail outlets with wholesale operations and developing the technology support needed for national scale and business efficiency. This pattern can be seen in each of the market segments it addressed: higher education, secondary education, and K-12 school libraries and classrooms.

The Follett businesses were early implementors of computing technologies to automate business processes and gain competitive advantages. In some cases, Follett Corporation made business acquisitions to jump-start involvement in new areas of business or to acquire technologies that it would enhance and integrate.

After almost 100 years of family ownership, Follett Corporation divested its operational businesses beginning in 2021. Each of three major businesses that comprised Follett Corporation continue to operate, each now owned by different investment groups entirely separate from the Follett family.

Antecedent business

C.M. Barnes

Follett Corporation traces its beginnings to 1873 to a series of bookstores and wholesale distribution business started by Charles Montgomery Barnes (b. September 8,1833; d. May 19, 1907). Barnes was in the first class to graduate from Chicago Theological Seminary and intended to pursue a career as a minister and military chaplain. His health was not up to the rigors of that profession and instead shifted his interest from theology to the bookselling business. His establishments traded in stationary, textbooks, school supplies, reflecting the focus on education that has persisted in the businesses that subsequently launched from these initial ventures. Barnes initially bought and sold books to students and teachers, gradually expanding as a supplier to schools and to other bookstores.

Barnes started his business in 1873 in his home at 203 E. Lincoln Avenue in Wheaton, Illinois near Wheaton College. He subsequently moved his business to a series of locations in Chicago. His business addresses included 23 La Salle Street (active in 1876), 54 La Salle Street (1878), 163 Washington Street, and 153 Wabash Avenue (1894). These establishments operated under the name C.M. Barnes and sold used school books, supplies and stationary. Barnes would place advertisements in newspapers and professional journals for educators offering to buy used school books to replenish his inventories (Journal of Education, The American School Boar Journal, Northwestern University Register, The Intelligence: A Journal of Education).

C.M.Barnes ad in the Northwestern University Register 1879
1879 C.M.Barnes ad
Northwestern University Register
C.M.Barnes-Wilcox & Co. ad in the Illinois School Journal 1882
1882 C.M. Barnes ad
Illinois School Journal
C.M.Barnes-Wilcox & Co. ad in the University Missourian May 30, 1913
1913 C.M.Barnes-Wilcox & Co. ad
University Missourian

C.M. Barnes & Company

By about 1894 the business had suffered setbacks and had mounted some debts. In 1895, the creditors were satisfied and the business was reorganized as the C.M. Barnes Company (The Publisher's Weekly Jan 13, 1894) and by then operated from 75 Wabash Avenue. As the business grew, it moved to series of larger facilities: 106, 108, 110, 112 Wabash Avenue (June 1896) 23 S La Salle St, Chicago, IL 60603, 176 Wabash Avenue, 176 Wabash Ave, and then to 262-264 Wabash Avenue.

In 1901 C.M. Barnes and Company stopped selling stationary and supplies to focus exclusively as a wholesale distributor of school books (The Bookseller: Devoted to the Book and Trade News Vol VI 1901).

Charles W. Follett (b. December 28, 1882; d December 19,1952) was hired in about 1901 to assist in moving the business to a new location and continued as a clerk.

C.M. Barnes' son William Robbins Barnes (b. May 12, 1866; d February 8, 1945) joined the business and advanced through roles of increasing responsibility. William Barnes and Charles Follett both learned the bookselling business under C.W. Barnes and successively led the business he founded.

In 1896, William Barnes married Blanche Wilcox, daughter of John William Wilcox (b. August 31, 1847, d. August 20, 1923; age 76) a businessman and banker. John Wilcox had founded the Farmers & Merchants' Bank and later was affiliated with Pond's Extract Co., (now the cosmetics product Ponds sold by Unilever), through 1897. Barnes business activities yielded capital available for new investments.

William Barnes became president of the company in 1902 upon the retirement of his father. By this time the business had become a major wholesale supplier of used textbooks, covering an extensive territory.

C. M. Barnes-Wilcox Company

John Wilcox, father-in-law to William Barnes, acquired majority ownership of the company in 1908 and became its Secretary and Treasurer. The business was then renamed to C.M. Barnes-Wilcox Company. The economic depression of 1907 had taken its toll on the business. The investment by Wilcox paid off accumulated debts and enabled the business to continue to expand.

The first business address for C.M. Barnes-Wilcox Co. was 323 S. Wabash in Chicago (approximately 1911-1916).

Charles W. Follett advanced to the role of Vice President and had became a shareholder of the company by 1912. William Barnes left the company in 1917, selling his shares to John Wilcox. At that time, Barnes relocated to New York and partnered with G. Clifford Noble to establish Barnes & Noble..

J. W. Wilcox & Follett Company

Charles W. Follett assumed leadership of the company in 1918 following the retirement of John Wilcox and it was renamed to the J. W. Wilcox & Follett Company. The business changed addresses a number of times during these early years, including at 408 S. Wabash Avenue.

Wilcox & Follett moved to 2008 S Calumet Avenue in the Prairie Avenue District of Chicago in June 1921. The structure was originally built in 1883 as a mansion for Philander C. Hanford, a wealthy oil magnate, who committed suicide in 1894 following the collapse of his business interests. Following his death, the building was occupied successively by a law firm (Hinds, Hayden & Eldredge in 1922) and other individuals or businesses. Wilcox & Follett occupied the Calumet Avenue building from 1921 through about 1929. The building eventually became decrepit and was demolished in 1953. ( more information.)

In about 1930 the business moved to 1255 S. Wabash and operated there until 1955.

Wilcox & Follett relocated to a large facility at 1000 West Washington Boulevard in Chicago, built as an industrial bakery for the National Biscuit Company. By that time the Follett family businesses had substantially expanded their business activities needed facilities for printing, binding, warehouse storage, and wholesale distribution. The company operated from this location through 1983, when new facilities were launched in the Chicago suburbs for each of the major business subsidiaries.


Charles W. Follett
Charles W. Follett
Edythe Benepe
Edythe Benepe
Sons of CW Follett: Dwight, Garth, Bob, Laddie
Sons of CW Follett: Dwight, Garth, Bob, Laddie

Charles W. Follett biographical details

Charles Walcott Follett was born in Indianapolis, Indiana on December 28, 1882 to Nathaniel and Martha Duncan Follett.

At age 15, Follett, residing in Franklin, Indiana, was recruited into the Spanish American War. His service was brief, as was the war. Follett served between June 20, 1898 through November 4, 1898 as a Private in the 158th Indiana Regiment Company E.

By about 1901 Charles Follett was working as an undertaker's assistant in Indianapolis, Indiana. He met Edythe Benepe (b. December 27, 1877; d. April 5, 1951; age 73), a reporter for a Chicago newspaper covering a story in Indianapolis. A young couple, Charles was 18 and Edythe a bit older at 24. Family lore states that Edythe, six years older and with her own career as a newspaper reporter, insisted that Charles become professionally established if they were to be married. In that year, Follett moved to Chicago and accepted a position in a newly opened bookstore owned by C.M. Barnes. Charles Follett's work for C.M Barnes apparently met that requirement and the couple married in February 1902 in Wisconsin.

Charles W. Follett
Charles W. Follett

Charles Follett advanced in the bookselling business. By 1912 he was promoted to the role of Vice President of C.M. Barnes and Company. Controlling ownership of the company had been acquired by John Wilcox, father-in-law of Charles Barnes in 1908. Charles Follett became President of the company in 1918 after the retirement of John Wilcox and renamed the business to J. W. Wilcox & Follett Company.

Charles and Edythe Follett had a total of five children. Their four sons played prominent roles in the business as adults. They also had a daughter who died as an infant. Katharine June Follett, born in 1909, died on June 7,1910 at 9 months 23 days.

Charles and Edythe Follett purchased the company in 1923, following the death of John Wilcox. The business continued to operate under the name Wilcox & Follett through about 1985.

Charles Follett was recognized as a prominent businessman in Chicago. In addition to his own company, he was involved in other professional associations. He founded Illinois Booksellers Association and was on the boards of the Central National Bank and the Twelfth Street Store, both in Chicago.

R.J.R. Follett, reflected his impression reflected his impression of his grandfather:

C.W. Follett died in 1952. Bob says he was a hardheaded, hard-driving businessman, but notes that when an employee needed a loan for an emergency, C.W. was ready to help out. One of the family's favorite stories about C.W. involves him accepting bushels of pecans in exchange for used textbooks during the Depression from a Georgia school district too poor to pay.

Charles and Edythe divorced in 1941. In 1951 Charles Follett subsequently married Gladys C. Tiedman (b. Dec 23,1913; d. Mar 3, 2006, age 92).

Charles Follett Died on December 9, 1952 at age 69. His obituary was published in the New York Times.

Edythe Benepe Follett was an impressive individual and made important contributions during this early phase of the company. According to a Follett social media post:

Benepe was a reporter for a Chicago newspaper in the early 1900s, a time in which it was unusual for women to work in professional roles. In 1901, Benepe was in Indianapolis covering a story when she met C.W. Follett, who was living in Indianapolis at the time and working as an undertaker's assistant. The two fell in love and would later go on to marry and have four sons. All while raising a family and tending to her busy household, Benepe ran her own bookstore and played an integral role in helping to lay the foundation for what would later become Follett Corporation.

Edythe Benepe died on April 5, 1951 at age 73.

Beginning of the Follett era

Upon the death of John Wilcox in 1923, Charles W. Follett and his wife Edythe Follett purchased full ownership of the company, which continued to operate under the name Wilcox & Follett.

The children of Charles and Edythe Follett each became involved in the business. This second generation of the Follett family represented the initial phase of expansion into new areas of business within the general confines of books, education, and libraries. Over the course of almost a century, five generations of Follett family members were involved in the business in many different roles.

1️⃣ Charles Walcott Follett married Edythe Benepe in February 1901. Their children each were involved with the family business.

  • Dwight W. Follett, (b. May 28, 1903; d. September 27, 1993; age 90) founded Follett Publishing Company in 1925. The publishing company specialized in textbooks for elementary schools. Follett Publishing Company became the leading publisher of elementary school social studies textbooks.
    • Robert John Richard (RJR) Follett. (b. July 4, 1928) Attended Brown University. Became an editor for Follett Publishing Company in 1951. In 1968, R.J.R. Follett was named president of the Follett Publishing Company. 1977 R.J.R. Follett became chairman of Follett Corporation.
    • Nancy Follett married Richard A. Waichler who became a Vice President for Operations for Follett
      • Steven Waichler: interim chair of the Follett Corporation board of directors (2013); founder of the Follett Family Council.
    • Ariel Follett married J. Philip O'Hara
      • Alison O'Hara Barasa was elected as chair of the Follett Corporation board of directors in 2011. Alison died of breast cancer during her tenure as chair of Follett Corporation.
  • Garth Benepe Follett (b. March 2, 1905; d. February 13, 1989; age 83) founded the Follett Library Book Company in 1940. This business was a distributor of children's books to primarily to K-12 school libraries. This business eventually evolved into Follett Library Resources.
    • Charles Reid Follett, son of Garth Follett, led the company from1955 until his retirement in 1973. Charles R. Follett died July 24, 2006 at age 76.
      • Charles Follett, Jr. founded Follett Software Company in 1985 and served as its President. Chuck served in many roles throughout Follett Corporation and its business units and eventually retired as President and CEO.
        • Britten Follett became Executive Vice President of Follett School Solutions in September 2019. She previously served as Senior Vice President of Marketing Strategy and Classroom Initiatives. Following the sale of Follett School Solutions to Francisco Partners, Britten Follett continued as CEO of Follett Content Solutions.
  • Robert Duncan (Bob) Follett (b. October 5,1906; d. January 16, 1977; age 70) started the Follett College Book Company in 1930.
    • Dona Lucy Follett. Married P. Richard Litzsinger in 1954. Richard attended University of Missouri. Worked in retail stores division. Following a series of leadership roles in the college stores business Richard Litzsinger became President and CEO of Follett Corporation in 1977.
      • Mark Litzsinger. Attended Texas Christian University. Managed two different college bookstores. Eventually became the Director of Corporate development and retired as Chairman of Follett Corporation.
      • Todd Litzsinger started as the midwestern regional marketing director for CAPCO. He eventually became president of Follett Library Resources and retired as interim CEO and Chairman of Follett Corporation in 2022.
    • Charron Follett. Married Richard M. Traut who joined the company in 1958. He became the assistant general manager of the wholesale business in 1965. In 1974 he was appointed as president of Follett Campus Resources. Richard M. Traut became chairman of Follett Corporation in 1989.
      • Christopher Traut. Attended Vanderbilt University. Worked Started in corporate development for Follett Software Company. In 1991 Chris Traut helped establish Follett Collegiate Graphics. Chris retired from Follett Corporation as President and CEO.
  • Charles Nathaniel Follett, known as "Laddie" (b. October 4, 1911; d. January 21, 2006; age 94) managed the original Wilcox & Follett business from 1952 to 1986. This business became Follett Educational Resources and became a major supplier of used textbooks to elementary and high schools in the United States.
    • Ross C. Follett headed Follett Library Resources, the largest distributor of books, videos, and CD-ROMs to elementary and high school libraries in the country
    • Kent A. Follett managed Follett Educational Services.

Follett Corporation Governance and Leadership

Follett Corporation was established as a private company with shares held exclusively by descendants of its founder Charles Follett. The size of the family shareholder group, their level of participation in the business, and their involvement in governance were important factors that shaped the history of Follett Corporation.

Steve Waichler, a fourth-generation Follett family member, notes some key characteristics of family businesses in an article that appeared in Families in Business

Many successful family businesses operate with an unusual degree of capital constraint, remaining privately held and avoiding access to public capital. Their ownership families retain high concentrations of equity over long periods of time and perceive that issuing public securities would dilute value and diminish control. Many family businesses are also debt adverse, and their capital structures remain minimally leveraged. Other companies see debt as the cheapest and most flexible form of capital, and tend to leverage their equity. Conventional wisdom would hold that the capital restraint of family companies limits their resources and their ability to compete.

...

The concept of organic growth of capital comes naturally to family businesses. Preserving sweat equity is an early motivator. No one wants to hand over value that's been built through years of personal sacrifice to lenders. As a result, family businesses tend to focus more on value preservation and generating reinvestment for growth internally. In addition to their debt aversion, many young family businesses do not pay out any dividends. Liquidity is reserved for business needs, and this frugal culture of retaining and building value in the business is an important part of creating sustainable family companies. By being conservative, family businesses are more readily established and can achieve sustainability sooner. Family successors often learn these key financial lessons from the family founder, and remain focused on building capital through retaining profits even after their companies have grown to a significant size.

The number of shareholders has naturally grown with each generation of the family. In 2016 there were 268 family members, including 136 in the fifth generation. By 2021, the number of family shareholders exceeded 300.

The company employed many family members, both in operational positions as well as executive roles. In the 1970s the company instituted a policy that family members could only join the company if older than 25 and with employment experience outside the company. This policy helped ensure that these individuals brought additional perspectives and expertise to their roles. It also ended up limiting the number of family members participating in the business, which ultimately weakened the commitment of family stakeholders group as a whole.

A board of directors provided strategic leadership for Follett Corporation, consistent with most businesses. The chair of the board of directors wields the most power in setting the direction of the corporation, with the chief executive officer responsible for managing the enterprise and executing strategies.

Through 1995, the board was constituted exclusively with family members. As the size of the family grew, so did the number of board seats. In 1995 the board had grown to an unwieldy 19 members, which was pared down to 11 in 1997. By 2016 the board of directors again expanded to 15 members.

To address an increasingly complex business environment the board recruited members with diverse backgrounds and perspectives. The board saw its first women members in 1979. Board members from outside the direct family were included in the board beginning in 1995. Kenneth J. Hull was the first non-family CEO and later its first non-family board chair. Ray A. Griffith, who was not a Follett family member, served as was named CEO in 2015 and retired in 2018.

Diane Stone provides more information about company governance in Family Business Magazine. Kellogg Family Conference [May 20-21, 2003] Steve Waichler provided additional details regarding Follett Corporation governance in a presentation given to the Kellogg Family Conference. in May 2003.

The following individuals have served as the chair of Follett's board of directors.

  • Charles W. Follett: 1923-1952
  • Dwight Follett: 1952-1979
  • R.J.R. Follett: 1979-1989
  • Richard M. Traut: 1989-1999
  • Kenneth J. Hull 1999-2001
  • R. Mark Litzsinger: 2001-2011
  • Alison O'Hara: 2011-2013
  • Steve Waichler (interim)
  • Todd Litzsinger: 2014-2022

The following individuals have served as the President and Chief Executive Officer of Follett Corporation:


Visualization of Follett Corporation history

Follett Corporation business history
Follett Corporation business history

Follett buildings and Facilities: Past and Present

2008 Calumet Ave Chicago
J.W. Wilcox & Follett Co
2008 Calumet Ave Chicago
Active: June 1921-1929
Wilcox & Follett store 1934
Wilcox & Follett store 1934
1255 S. Wabash Chicago
Active: 1930-1954
Current view of the Wilcox & Follett store location
Wilcox & Follett store location
1255 S. Wabash
Current View
Follett accounting department in the 1950s
Follett accounting department
IBM tabulating equipment
1950s
Former Follett Corporation facility located at 1000 West Washington Boulevard in Chicago.
Former Follett Follett Corporation facility
1000 West Washington Boulevard in Chicago
Active: 1955-1983
Former Follett Educational Services Facility at 5563 S. Archer Ave., Chicago
Former Follett Educational Services Facility
5563 S. Archer Ave., Chicago
Active: ~1990-1998
Former Follett Higher Education distribution center and warehouse in Aurora, IL
Former Follett Higher Education distribution center
2805 Duke Pkwy. Aurora, IL
Active: 2011-2018
Former Follett Library Book Company facility in Crystal Lake, IL
Former Follett Library Book Company facility
4504 Northwest Hwy. Crystal Lake, IL
Active: 1961-1996
Former Follett Corporation facility in River Grove, IL
Former Follett Corporation headquarters
2211 North West Street River Grove, IL
Active: 1998-2013
Former Follett Higher Education facility in Oak Brook, IL
Former Follett Higher Education facility
1818 Swift Rd., Oak Brook, IL 60523
Active: 1999-2012
Follett distribution facility in Westmont, IL
Former Follett Higher Education Group facility
600 Oakmont Lane Westmont, IL 60559
Active: 2004-2014
Former Follett Educational Services facility in Woodridge, IL
Former Follett Educational Services facility
1433 Internationale Pkwy, Woodridge, IL
Active: 1999-2022
Former Follett Software Company facility on Front St. in McHenry, IL
Former Follett Software Company facility
809 Front St, McHenry, IL 60050
Currently McHenry Public LIbrary
Active: 1989-1994
Follett School Solutions facility in McHenry, IL
Follett School Solutions facility
1391 Corporate Drive, McHenry, IL
Active: 1994-present
Follett distribution center and warehouse in McHenry, IL
Inside view
Follett School Solutions distribution center and warehouse
1391 Corporate Drive, McHenry, IL
Follett Corporation and Follett Higher Education in Three Westbrook Corporate Center
Follett Corporation and Follett Higher Education Headquarters
3 Westbrook Corporate Center Suite 200. Westchester, IL 60154
Active: 2013-present

Current disposition of former Follett facilities at 2211 North West Street River Grove and 4504 Northwest Hwy Crystal Lake, IL 60014

The building used by the Follett Corporation from between 1955 and 1983 at 1000 West Washington Boulevard in Chicago has an interesting history. The building was originally built as a factory for producing Uneeda biscuits by the National Biscuit Company. The Follett family sold the building to developers that transformed it into residential loft apartments.

Our building was one of the original National Biscuit Company (later shortened to Nabisco) bakeries, specially designed and built in 1902 to produce the company's popular Uneeda brand biscuits and fig bars. It was designed by the influential Chicago architecture firm of Treat & Folz. In 1954, Nabisco sold the building to J. W. Wilcox & Follett Co., a leading wholesaler of textbooks. The building was used to warehouse and package school textbooks, and by the 1970s the company (renamed Follett Corporation) expanded and bought dozens of college and university bookstores across the country. In the early 1990s, as they continued to grow, Follett sold the building to developers and it was developed into 180 residential units in 1995. (from: Exploring a Sweet Loft in the West Loop's Old Nabisco Factory

Map of Current and Previous facilities used by Follett Corporation Businesses

Click on icon to view additional information about each facility


Follett businesses in the 1950's

Following the death of Charles W. Follett on December 19,1952, Dwight Follett became the chairman of the company. In 1957, Follett Corporation was established as the holding company over the four individual businesses:

  • Follett Publishing Company,
  • Follett College Book Company: wholesale distributor to colleges and universities,
  • Wilcox & Follett: retail store and wholesale distributor to elementary and high schools, and
  • Follett Library Book Company: wholesale distributor to school libraries.

By 1998 there were six Follett divisions:

  • Follett Corporation (main office)
  • Follett College Stores: retail campus stores for colleges and universities in US and Canada
  • Follett Campus Resources: wholesale distributor of used books to colleges and universities and other services in support of retail operations.
  • Follett Collegiate Graphics: services for the creation of course packs.
  • Follett Educational Services distributor of resources for K-12 schools, including new and used textbooks.
  • Follett Library Resources: full-service wholesaler to school libraries supported by the TitleWave ordering and ecommerce platform.
  • Follett Software Company: offered library automation systems for K-12 schools, with products including Catalog Plus, Circulation Plus, Alliance Plus (MARC Database)

In 1998, Follett Corporation reorganized to streamline the businesses into three groups:

  • Follett Higher Education Group, including Follett College Stores, Follett Campus Resources, and Custom Academic Publishing, headed by James W. Baumann.
  • Follett Elementary and High School Group headed by Christopher D. Traut.
  • Follett Library Group headed by Ross C. Follett.

In 2014 the businesses were again consolidated:

  • Follett Higher Education Group
  • Follett School Solutions: including Follett Library Group and the Elementary / High School Group

Follett Publishing Company

Dwight Follett, the oldest son of Charles W. Follett founded Follett Publishing Company in 1925. The company got its start through the acquisition of a publisher of foreign-language dictionaries. The publishing company also specialized children's books and textbooks for elementary schools.

The publishing company originally operated from the same building as the Follett & Wilcox retail store at 1257 S Wabash Ave in downtown Chicago, relocating in 1955 to a larger building at 1010 Washington Boulevard. in the 1960's the company's trade books were managed at 201 Wells Street. American Publishers Corporation was also a publishing company owned by Follett Corporation. (Source: "Follett Publishing Company: 1926-1982" American literary publishing houses, 1900-1980. Trade and paperback. 1986. Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co. )

Follett Publishing Company became the leading publisher of elementary school social studies textbooks. It was one of the first to publish racially integrated textbooks. According to his 1993 obituary in the Chicago Tribune: "Follett led the development of an elementary school social studies program that became the most widely used series in the country."

R.J.R. Follett, son of Dwight Follett served as an editor for Follett Publishing Company beginning in 1951.

From 1925 through 1983 Follett Publishing Company published over 1,000 books. Popular series included "Follett just beginning-to-read Books" and Follett Beginning Science Books for young children. Some of the titles are listed in the catalogs of the Library of Congress and OCLC WorldCat:

In 1960 Follett Publishing Company acquired Maxton Publishing Company and Tax Digest, Inc.

The materials donated by Follett Corporation to the Loyola Archives and Special Collections of the Loyola University of Chicago includes a collection of 1,000 books published by Follett Publishing Company.

In 1981, Follett sold its adult and reference books to New Century Education Corporation. In 1983 Follett Corporation sold Follett Publishing Company to Esquire Education Group for $10 million, which continued to operate the business from its Washington Boulevard location. According to a 2019 interview in Family Business Magazine with R.J.R. Follett:

More difficult was deciding what to do about the 55-year-old Follett Publishing Company. The textbook industry was consolidating, and Follett would have had to acquire other publishers to stay in business. "We had quality books," says Dick, "but we didn't have the resources to compete with the biggest textbook publishers." Follett Publishing Company was sold for $10 million, and the company invested the proceeds in bookstores, a move that Bob Follett calls "a wise decision."

Follett College Book Company > Follett Campus Resources

Follett Campus Resources, Evolving from the Follett College Book Company established in 1930, became established as the leading wholesale operation for used books used in college and university courses. This company, established in 1930 by Robert Duncan (Bob) Follett (b. October 5, 1906 c. January 16, 1977) initially represented the transition from retail sales for individual students and teachers to wholesale services to other stores and to campuses. This business was involved in wholesale distribution of used textbooks to university professors and college bookstores.

As the book wholesale business grew, it benefited from computer automation. In the 1950s the company invested in computing equipment from IBM to support its accounting department. Later the company developed inventory management and point-of-sale systems for its retail stores.

Follett provides a comprehensive set of services to campuses for which in manages the bookstore. The company also offers a set of services available to campuses that manage their own independent bookstores, including sale and buy-back of used books and point-of-sale systems and equipment.

Follett College Book Company produced the Follett Blue Book Pricing Guide that listed the current market value of new and used college books and textbooks. This guide was an important resource for the acquisition and sale of books for its wholesale business.

The data from the Pricing Guide was also incorporated into Follett's ecommerce solutions:

Customers can also take advantage of having an electronic copy of our Blue Book for use with our buyback and textbook management software, with information on more than 58,000 titles. Updated versions of both the Electronic Blue Book and the paperbound version are distributed ten times a year, reflecting our tireless research and our commitment to provide the most current textbook and pricing data possible. Each year, the Blue Book repeats its reputation as the standard of accuracy for textbook information.

(2006 capture from FHEG website)

Follett Corporation acquired Brennan College Services in about 1991, a company founded by Edward J. Brennan, Jr. in 1967.

In about 1994, The Follett College Book Company was renamed Follett Campus Resources.

Follett College Stores

In 1931, Bob Follett, son of Charles W. Follett, started the first college bookstore owned and operated by the company, representing the beginning of a very successful arm of the company that eventually grew to be the largest operator of college bookstores in the United States. In 1962 P. Richard Litzsinger, son-in-law of Bob Follett, became the supervisor of the retail stores division. By 1968 he was named president of Follett College Stores.

Following the sale of Follett Publishing Company in 1982, the company a chain of 35 college bookstores, accelerating the company's retail operations and a line of business which eventually represented its largest source of revenue. Retail operations though high in revenue, return thin profit margins.

Follett Corporation enhanced its campus book store with inventory control and point of sale technologies as well as its complementary wholesale business for new and used books and textbooks. By about 1994, the company had developed FIRSTsystem (Follett Integrated Retail Systems Technology) to support bookstores for point-of-sale support and inventory management. According to the division's website (2001): "POS updates inventory levels, pricing and accounts receivable information in real time. Additional modules in the system allow you to integrate our application with your accounting system, student registration, financial aid, inventory management services, university Web site and efollett.com."

Follett has a long and successful history of operating retail bookstores for colleges and universities. Many higher educational institutions lack the expertise and business infrastructure to efficiently manage their bookstores and engage outsourced services such as those from Follett. The company developed and implemented inventory management and point of sale systems in support of their campus bookstore outsourcing services. The company also launched ecommerce portals for campuses interested in a virtual campus bookstore. Follett has partnerships with clothing manufacturers for sale of branded campus apparel. Manages the inventory of academic material, merchandise, as well as store design, promotion, and supporting technologies.

Barnes & Noble Education competes with Barnes & Noble Education in managing college and university bookstores and providing content for courses. Barnes & Noble Education separated from the Barnes & Noble retail and Nook business in February 2015. Barnes & Noble traces its history to William Barnes, who, as noted above, was involved in the early history of the Follett Corporation.

Follett Higher Education

In March 1999 the company consolidated Follett Campus Resources, Follett College Stores, and Follett Express Sales into a single organization named Follett Higher Education Group. The new group was led by James W. Baumann as its President. At this time, these businesses were generating about $1 billion in annual revenue.

Thomas E. Christopher served as President and Chief Operating Officer of Follett Higher Education from 2001-2013. Don Germano joined the company in this role in 2013. Roe J. McFarlane succeeds Clay Wahl as President of Follett Higher Education in Aug 28, 2019

Some of the major events of Follett Higher Education Group include:

  • 2013 Follett Corporation acquired BetterKnow a provider of tools and technology for higher education that enables Instructors to identify course materials from a wide variety of sources.
  • 2015 Follett acquired the retail stores division of Nebraska Book Company. This acquisition added an additional 200 stores to Follett's portfolio. Nebraska Book Company retained its used textbook wholesale business and other services oriented to independent campus bookstores.
  • 2016 Follett Corporation acquired Valore and its ValoreBooks marketplace in November 2016. Follett and Valore eventually separated. ValoreBooks is now privately owned by Valore Campus, LLC. and operates about 100 campus bookstores as well as the ValoreBooks.com ecommerce platform for used textbooks.
  • 2019 : Introduced Follett ACCESS, a program that "delivers all required print and digital course materials to all enrolled students at a campus as part of their tuition".

Custom Academic Publishing Company

Prior to the all-digital age, reading material, such as journal articles and book chapters, assigned for college and university classes were often packaged into course packs and sold through campus bookstores. The assembly and sale of course packs was was a natural business niche for Follett. This division was launched in 1999 under the name of Follett Collegiate Graphics, which eventually became Follett Academic Publishing Company. April 1998 Follett Corporation acquired Custom Academic Publishing Company, or CAPCO. This business was folded into Follett Higher Education in 1998. The company created an integrated technology system for the production of course packs using digital technologies, called the Digital Mastering Management System. The service included managing fees associated copyright compliance, which were included in the costs charged to students.

Follett Library Book Company > Follett Library Resources

Garth Follett, son of Charles W. Follett founded the Follett Library Book Company in 1940. This business was a distributor of children's books, sold mostly to primarily to K-12 school libraries. This business eventually evolved into Follett Library Resources.

In the 1950s, this company relocated, along with all the other Follett businesses moved into a facility located at 1000 West Washington Boulevard in Chicago, built in 1882. This building housed offices, a warehouse, and a book bindery. This building has since been converted into residential condominiums.

In 1994 Follett Library Book Company became Follett Library Resources to reflect its expanded offerings of materials and services for libraries. These products and services included an ever-increasing inventory of K-12 books, audiovisual materials, and electronic ordering – first via Titlewave CD-ROM and then via Titlewave Internet. Titlewave continues as the primary ecommerce portal used by its library customers to select and order print and digital library materials.

As a large-scale distributor of print materials, the company requires warehouse and distribution facilities to support its operations. In November 1997, the ongoing growth of Follett Library Resources led to the building of a new state-of-the-art facility was built in McHenry, Illinois.

In addition to its role as a wholesaler of books, audio-visual, and digital materials, the company offered other services such as binding, cataloging, sorting of catalog cards, collection development assistance, provision of cataloging records.

By 2012, Follett Library Resources had gained a dominant place as a provider of content to K-12 school libraries. A survey at that time on electronic book penetration and use among PreK-12 school libraries revealed that 67 of PreK-12 eBooks Purchased from Follett.

Wilcox & Follett > Follett Educational Resources

The original Wilcox & Follett business sold new and used textbooks to individuals and teachers, and eventually expanded into a wholesale business selling regionally, and to schools and school districts. This division was renamed the Elementary School and High school (El-Hi) and later became Follett Educational Resources. The company sold used textbooks; new textbooks, workbooks, teacher's editions, classroom sets; buyback programs. It developed TextLink, a computerized textbook management system supporting textbook inventory, accessibility, accountability, and control.

Follett Educational Resources became part of the Elementary/High School Group in 1998 and in 2014 was folded into Follett School Solutions.

In 2022, due to a decade-long market decline, Follett announced its exit from the used textbook business and closed its Woodridge, Illinois facility. This event marks the end of the original lines of business within the Follett family enterprise.

Book Wholesalers, Inc. (BWI)

Follett acquired Book Wholesalers, Inc. (BWI), distributor of children's books to public libraries in 1997. In 2003, the company merged its Follett Media Distribution business with BWI. At this time, it moved its operations from Follett's distribution center in Crystal Lake, IL to BWI's facilities Lexington, KY.

Follett sold the assets of BWI to Baker & Taylor related to materials and resources outside the K-12 school market.

Follett Audiovisual Resources

In 1999, Follett launched Follett Audiovisual Resources. as a wholesale distributor of non-print materials, including compact discs, videocassettes, audio books, DVD titles and other entertainment or cultural media. Bill Frank was appointed as President of Follett Audiovisual Resources. This division supplied materials to public libraries through Book Wholesalers, Inc. and to libraries as via Follett Library Resources.

In 2012, Follett Corporation divested the assets of BWI oriented to public libraries to Baker & Taylor. This move was based on the company's decision at that time to focus on the school library market and to move away from public libraries.

Baker & Taylor

Follett Corporation made its largest business acquisition in April 2016 when it purchased Baker & Taylor, purchased Baker & Taylor, a major distributor of print and digital content to retail stores and to libraries. At that time, the company was estimated to bring in about $1 billion in annual revenue.

Under Follett Corporation, Baker & Taylor made some significant changes in its business strategies, shifting its business to focus as a supplier of books to libraries. In May 2019 the company discontinued its position as a wholesale distributor of books to retail bookstores to concentrate on its role as a supplier of books to public libraries. In October 2020, Baker & Taylor announced its reentry as a distributor of books and ebooks to academic libraries.

Baker & Taylor provides library ebook lending services via its Axis 360 ebook platform. It competes in this sector with services from Overdrive, and the Bibliotheca cloudLibrary service.

Baker & Taylor traces its corporate ancestry to 1828 as a book binder and publisher. In 1912 the company shifted from publishing to book distribution. Baker & Taylor has seen a series of ownership arrangements:

  • Parents Magazine (1958–1970)
  • W.R Grace and Company (1970–1992)
  • The Carlyle Group (1992–2003) Acquisition price: $106 million
  • Willis Stein and Partners (July 3, 2003–May 2006). Acquisition price: $255 million
  • Castle Harlin (May 2006–April 2016)
  • Follett Corporation (April 2015 - Nov 2021)
  • Private investment Group (2021 - )

Follett had considered the purchase of Baker and Taylor in 1994 but the deal did not succeed at that time. Billboard. among others reported on the potential acquisition.

Follett Software Company > Follett School Solutions

Within the library technology industry, Follett Corporation is known as a major force in the K-12 school library sector with its technology products and as a distributor of content and educational resources. Follett Software Company was a pioneer in school library automation and the company has continually expanded its presence both through business acquisitions and the development of new products and services. The company's products have evolved through multiple cycles of technology, beginning with software for MS-DOS and Apple II computers, to new versions based on Microsoft Windows, to the current generation of web-based products.

Follett's involvement in library automation began in the 1980's as microcomputers were becoming more affordable compared to the mainframe and minicomputers used in many business sectors. Personal computers such as the Apple II, launched in 1978, and the IBM PC, launched in 1981, were increasingly used by small businesses in addition to their use in homes and offices for personal computing. Apple computers were especially popular in schools.

Follett's has been involved with library automation since in the mid-1980s. Follett Library Book Company began distributing a library automation system developed by Richmond Micro Software in 1983 which ran on Apple microcomputers.

In 1985 Follett Corporation acquired Library Software Company from Bob Skapura and Joe Ward in 1985 that had developed some early microcomputer-based products for library automation. These products included Circulation Plus, which used barcode technology for circulation of library materials, designed for libraries with less than 25,000 items and Overdue Writer for generating and processing notices. (See: Library Systems Newsletter Dec 1984.

Following this business acquisition Follett Corporation established Follett Library Software as a new business unit dedicated to the development of automation systems for school libraries. This initiative was led by Charles (Chuck) R. Follett, Jr,.

Follett Software Company continued their development of Circulation Plus and expanded its product line to include Catalog Plus, and other products and services for K-12 school libraries. Alliance Plus provided automation for multiple libraries in a school district. During this era the main model of automation involved individual installations for each school library. Some districts might also have had union catalogs, but circulation and cataloging tended to be implemented on decentralized PC-based systems. In 1993 Follett developed a new design for its automation products, called Unison as a more unified technology platform that enabled its products, including Catalog Plus, and Textbook Plus to work together as modules.

By 1994 Follett Software Company employed 275 personnel and moved to a new building in McHenry, IL.

In 1998 Follett Software Company introduced Windows-based versions of Circulation Plus, Catalog Plus, and Alliance Plus.

WebCollection Plus,. a web-based interface was also introduced in 1998 to enable access to library collections via the Internet.

In 2003 Follett launched a new Web-based product called Destiny, oriented to centralized district-wide automation. Two years later Follett introduces Destiny Media Manager.

Since its launch, Follett has gradually converted most of its Circulation Plus and Catalog Plus installations to Destiny and attracted many additional clients to become the dominant automation system for school libraries in the US. Follett's library automation products have seen some adoption outside the US, such as through the American International Schools.

Follett continued to expand its customer base in the library automation sector through business acquisitions. It In July 2006, Follett Corporation acquired the library automation assets of Sagebrush Corporation, which was Follett's main competitor in providing library software products to K-12 schools and was also a distributor of books and other educational materials.

Sagebrush Technologies entered the library automation software sector through a series of business acquisitions and had subsequently developed its own products. Its business acquisitions included:

  • In 1997 Sagebrush acquired Library Catalog Company.
  • in October 1998 Sagebrush Technologies acquired Nichols Advanced Technologies which developed the Windows-based Athena library automation system for school libraries. The company previously developed MOLLI, an early library automation system that ran on personal computers using the MS-DOS operating system. Athena, launched in 1993, was one of the first PC-based library automation systems that ran under Microsoft Windows with a graphical interface. Nichols Advanced Technologies was founded in January 1983 by Bruce and Janice Butler in Edmonton, Ontario. The company moved its headquarters to Austin, Texas, in 1996.
  • In January 2000 Sagebrush Technologies acquired Winnebago Software Company. Winnebago Spectrum was one of the most widely used automation systems in school libraries. Winnebago Software Company was founded in 1982 by George B. “Jeb” Griffin.

Following these acquisitions, Sagebrush began its development of its own products intended as a forward migration path for libraries using the legacy products of Sagebrush. Sagebrush launched InfoCentre. in October 2005. InfoCentre was created as the successor product for all Sagebrush's library automation products, including MOLLI, Athena, and Winnebago Spectrum.

In January 2001 Sagebrush Technologies, in partnership with Sirsi Corporation launched Accent, a version of Sirsi Unicorn customized for school libraries launched. Accent targeted large municipal school districts, but was not widely adopted. The partnership with Sirsi was dissolved following Sagebrush's acquisition by Follett. Some of the libraries that had purchased Accent shifted to direct support from Sirsi Corporation; others stayed with Follett and migrated to Destiny.

The acquisition of Sagebrush's library automation products did not include Sagebrush Books or its library services business. Sagebrush Books was rebranded as Tandem Library Books and continued to operate following the sale of the library software division. This business was acquired by Mackin Library Media. in April 2008. Mackin is one of Follett's competitors in providing content resources to schools. Follett also partners with Mackin to integrate its content within the Follett resource discovery and acquisition tools.

Follett acquired TetraData . in August 2006, a company that provided data warehousing, analysis and reporting solutions for K-12 school districts. In June 2009 Follett Software Company introduces Tetradata Insightsa three-step model that enables Continuous Improvement using student data, helping K-12 school districts to improve the academic performance of students. The TetraData service was discontinued in about 2012.

In 2012, Follett acquired the Aspen Student Information System from X2 Development Corporation. Follett acquired the Aspen Student Information System from X2 Development Corporation. The Aspen SIS is used by school districts to manage all aspects of student information.

Consolidation of business units to form Follett School Solutions

In 2014, Follett Corporation merged its three businesses oriented to school libraries into a single entity Follett School Solutions.. This new organization was formed though consolidating Follett Educational Services, Follett Library Resources and Follett Software Company into a single business unit led by Tom Schenck.

Follett acquired ClassBook in 2016. ClassBook provided online book stores for private and parochial primary and secondary schools. This business became part of the Follett Virtual Campus. Originally acquired for Follett School Solutions, FVC eventually shifted to Follett Higher Education, consistent with its emphasis on physical and virtual retail stores.

In 2019 Follett Acquired NextTier Education a startup company offering a service to help students apply for post-secondary education programs. Follett had been the exclusive distributor of NextTier since May 2018. This service was subsequently discontinued.

Follett School Solutions Mergers and Acquisitions

Follett Corporation business history
Follett School Solution business acquisitions

Library Systems and Services

Follett Corporation was briefly involved in outsourcing services for the management of libraries. The company invested in Library Systems and Services, a company founded in 1981 by Frank Pezzanite and Judy Pezzanite to develop and support the MINIMARC library automation system. Frank Pezzanite helped develop the system while working for Informatics, and subsequently acquired the product through LSSI. The company also produced a database of Marc Records which was distributed on Laserdisc and CD-ROM.

Library Systems and Services also provided a variety of services for bibliographic record production, including creation and delivery of MARC records, conversion from non-MARC sources, as well as comprehensive technical processing services. The company, for example, provided complete technical services for the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Library.

In 1984, Gaylord acquired full equity in Library Systems and Services.

Follett Software Company entered into a strategic partnership with Library Systems and Services to provide expanded cataloging services to libraries using its Circulation Plus to use the LSSI Union CD-ROM.

Follett Corporation invested in Library Systems and Services in November 1996, acquiring about half equity in the company. At this time, LSSI began offering services for full outsourcing of the management of public libraries. One of its first customers was Riverside County Free Library System in California. LSSI has gradually expanded the number of libraries it manages to about 20 public library systems spanning 72 branches.

Follett Corporation sold its interests in Library Systems and Services back to its founders in 2003. Argosy Private Equity invests in LSSI acquired LSSI in Jan 2015. Islington Capital Partners acquired Library Systems and Services from Argosy Private Equity in July 2021.

Follett Educational Foundation

Apart from is commercial businesses, the Follett family established the Follett Educational Foundation as a non-profit organization in 1964. The Follett Educational Foundation provides educational scholarships, primarily to dependents of the employees of the Follett Corporation. In recent years, Follett Educational Foundation has dispersed around $300,000 annually through scholarships ranging from $1,000 to $3,000.

Since the divestment of the Follett Corporation businesses, the Follett Education Foundation has begun a new set of scholarships benefitting students attending Oak Park High School and Proviso East High School, both in Chicago area with connections to the Follett Family. The Foundation will continue to support scholarships to previous recipients through the completion of their undergraduate degrees.

The Follett Educational Foundation receives funding from the Follett commercial businesses, Follett family members, and from fundraising events, and from individual donors as well as earnings from its investment assets of about $5 million. The Foundation does not compensate its directors or officers.

As a 501(c)(3) tax-exempt organization, the Follett Educational Foundation makes annual filings to the Internal Revenue Service, available for public inspection: 2019, 2018, 2017.

The Follett Educational Foundation holds the trademarks and brands associated with the Follett family name.

Follett Corporation Divests its Major Businesses

Beginning in 2021 Follett Corporation made a major transition, selling each of its businesses to external investment groups. Following these divestments, Follett Corporation no longer operated as a family owned and managed businesses. Follett Educational Foundation has retained ownership of the Follett brand and trademark. The Follett brand and trademark persist through a licensing arrangement under the new ownership of two of its businesses, Follett School Solutions and Follett Higher Education.

Francisco Partners acquires Follett School Solutions

In September 2021, Follett Corporation sold Follett School Solutions to Francisco Partners, a major private equity firm specializing in technology-focused businesses.

This transition included both the technology and content products. The assets acquired were segmented into two businesses, Follett School Solutions, LLC which includes products including Destiny Library Manager, Destiny Resource Manager, and Aspen Student Information System and Follett Content Solutions, LLC including the company's wholesale physical and digital content operations and the Titlewave ecommerce portal.. The two businesses continue to be branded together as Follett School Solutions and are represented on the web under follettlearning.com.

Under Francisco Partners, the two segments are led by separate executives who work together closely to coordinate product and business strategies. Chris Porter serves as the CEO for the software side of the business Britten Follett, a fifth-generation Follett family member led Follett School Solutions under Follett Corporation since February 2019 and continues to lead the content business. Although a Follett family member continues to be involved in the company, it operates under the ownership and control of Francisco Partners with no ongoing connection to the former Follett Corporation.

Since the sale, Follett School Solutions has closed its warehouse and distribution center in Woolridge, IL as it exits the school textbook distribution business.

Baker & Taylor sold to CEO-led investor group

In November of 2021, Follett Corporation sold Baker & Taylor , to an investment group led by its Chief Executive Officer Aman Kochar. This transition marked the end of a five-year ownership of Baker & Taylor by Follett Corporation.

Follett Higher Education sold to investment group led by Jefferson River Capital

In February 2022 Follett Corporation sold Follett Higher Education to a private investment group led by Jefferson River Capital .

According to Britten Follett, a fifth-generation family member, board member, and Follett executive, a number of factors led to the decision to sell the businesses associated with Follett Corporation. Over time, the family shareholder group had grown to over three hundred members. Only about ten members of the Follett family were employed by the company, a stark contrast to earlier phases of the company where a high percentage of family members participated in the business. Most shareholders were less interested in overseeing operational details and generally did not have an appetite for making additional investments needed to strengthen the businesses. The financial headwinds brought by the pandemic ultimately led to the decision to sell the three core businesses. The Follett Educational Foundation remains under control of the Follett family.

New Beginings

Much of the business activity that resided within the Follett Corporation will go forward under its new ownership arrangements. No longer under the more conservative and debt-adverse constraints of a family administered business, the three companies are well positioned to prosper in their respective commercial sectors. We can expect the new investors to focus on the areas of business with favorable prospects and to jettison others. This pattern can already be seen in Follett School Solutions' exit from book fairs and the used textbook market.

Francisco Partners has an established track record of investing in technology-focused companies and executing growth strategies. This capability was seen previously in the library technology sector through its acquisitions of Ex Libris and Endeavor, assembling a company that has gone on to take a dominant role as a provider of systems for research libraries. Under Francisco Partners, Follett School Solutions has already seen an initial step advancing from a largely domestic presence to a more global player through the recent acquisition of Accessit.

Sources

Follett Corporation - Company Profile, Information, Business Description, History, Background Information on Follett CorporationReference for Business 1999.

Quilty, Matt The Pioneers: Follett Corporation Dominican University 2012

Follett's Story from Follett Corporation website

Stone, Deanne. Follett looks toward the futureFamily Business (March/April 2016)

Waichler, Steve. (2003). Follett Family Council: Steve Waichler. Kellogg Family Conference.

Waichler, Steve. (2005). Continuity and Flexibility enable a business to Survive and Thrive. Families in Business (21).

Breeding, Marshall. (2021). New Ownership for Follett School Solutions. Smart Libraries Newsletter 41 (10), 3-5.

Breeding, Marshall. (2019). Follett Corporation Makes New Leadership Appointments. Smart Libraries Newsletter 39 (10), 2-5.

Breeding, Marshall. (2019). Baker & Taylor Exits Services for Retail Bookstores. Smart Libraries Newsletter 39 (7), 5.

Breeding, Marshall. (2019). Follett Acquires NextTier Education. Smart Libraries Newsletter 39 (1), 3-5.

Breeding, Marshall. (2018). Follett Acquires Fishtree. Smart Libraries Newsletter 38 (8), 2-4.

Breeding, Marshall. (2017). Follett Expands to Dubai. Smart Libraries Newsletter 37 (2), 3-4.

Breeding, Marshall. (2016). Follett Corporation acquires Baker & Taylor. Smart Libraries Newsletter 36 (6), 3-6.

Breeding, Marshall. (2013). Follett Unifies its School Library Business. Smart Libraries Newsletter 33 (8), 7.

Breeding, Marshall. (2006). Sagebrush sold to Follett Software Company. Smart Libraries Newsletter 26 (9), 3.

Breeding, Marshall. (1995). Circulation Plus, Catalog Plus, and Alliance Plus: the Unison design from Follett Software Company. Library software review 14 (2), 106-121.

Press Releases archived on Library Technology Guides. (1993 - present)

Follett Archives

Following the divestiture of the Follett Corporation businesses, the archives of the company have been donated to the Loyola Archives And Special Collections of Loyola University Chicago. The donation of the collection was announced in a press release: Follett Archives is now part of Loyola Archives and Special Collections. The donation of the collection was facilitated by Jean Follett and Todd Litzsinger.

The C. W. Follett papers including "a typed, signed letter from C.W. Follett in Chicago, Illinois on 1951/08/27 regarding the publishing business." is housed at the Indiana State Library ( Collection: Folder: S475 Identifier: S0475)

The University of Oregon Special Collections and University Archives holds a collection donated in 1979: Follett Publishing Company, Children's Department records. "The collection contains manuscripts, correspondence, illustrations, photographs, and other items of the authors in the collection".


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Publication Year:2023
Type of Material:Article
Language English
Published in: Library Technology Newsletter
Publication Info:Volume 2 Number 01
Issue:January 2023
Page(s):3
Publisher:Library Technology Guides
Place of Publication:Nashville, TN
Company: Follett
Follett School Solutions
Follett Higher Education
Subject: Follett Corporation History
Record Number:28244
Last Update:2023-02-06 22:53:26
Date Created:2022-12-21 14:31:56
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